1. Introduction

 

About what theme I am going to speak and why:

  • two-step flow of communication

 

 

Structure (Agenda) of this presentation

  • What means two-step flow of communication?
  • What and who are opinion leaders?
  • Why are opinion leaders, are opinion leaders?

 

 

  1. What means two-step flow of communication?

 

  • mass media powerful influence -> stimulus-response
  • one-step flow
  • two-step saying mass media reach opinion leaders
  • who, in turn, pass on what they read and hear to those of their every-day associates for whom they are influential.
  • simply explained

 

  1. What and who are opinion leaders?

 

  • opinion leaders are asked for advice
  • opinion leaders could be influenced by other opinion leaders
  • is chosen by demographic terms ((social status, sex, age, etc.) and
  • also in terms of the structure and values of the group
  • example
  • opinion leaders can be as different as the subjects, they are giving advice.

 

  1. Why are opinion leaders, are opinion leaders?

 

  • The main factors that someone become an opinion leader are related (1) to the personification of certain values (who one is); (2) to competence (what one knows); and (3) to strategic social location (whom one knows).
  • explained by the example of the girl

 

Today I want to present you a very famous hypothesis within the communication science, which is called the “two step flow of communication”. By the way: Does anyone know this hypothesis already; it was introduced by Lazarsfeld and elaborated by Katz?

 

It could be a little bit hard to understand it, if you hear it for the first time, so I organized my presentation in 3 questions.

 

First question is:

What means two-step flow of communication?

 

Second question is:

What and who are opinion leaders?

 

Third and last question is:

Why are opinion leaders, are opinion leaders?

 

Let us begin with the first question: What means two-step flow of communication?

Till the fifties of the last century many researchers believed that mass media have a powerful influence on the opinions of people. The theory – behind this belief – is named stimulus-response theory, and it states that mass media reach people directly and can provoke a certain effect. So to speak, the mass media spread their opinion in one-step flow to the masses. The two-step flow of communication theory stating now that the mass media first reach „opinion leaders“ who, in turn, pass on what they read and hear to those of their every-day associates for whom they are influential. Simple explained, the main meaning of two-step flow of communication is that the mass media do not change or shape the attitude of people directly but opinion leaders do.

Ok, but that brings us to the next question: What and who are opinion leaders?

Opinion leaders are people who have influence on other people. Opinion leaders are people who are asked for advice in a special area. So they can give advice about one matter, and receive advice about another matter. You can find them in every social class and occupation, and they primarily influence people from their closer social environment. Also, Opinion leaders could be influenced by other opinion leaders – so you could speak about a three-step flow of communication. The opinion leader is chosen by a group not only in demographic terms (social status, sex, age, etc.), but also in terms of the structure and values of the group. For example: A young unmarried girl is preferred for advice in matters of fashion and an older housewife in finding of a cheap and good supermarket. So we can see, opinion leaders can be as different as the subjects, they are giving advice. But how become somebody an opinion leader? Certainly, there a many young unmarried women but only one is asked for advice in matter of fashion. So that brings us to my last question:

 

Why are opinion leaders, are opinion leaders?

The main factors that someone become an opinion leader are related (1) to the personification of certain values (who one is); (2) to competence (what one knows); and (3) to strategic social location (whom one knows).

 

Let me explain these three factors on an example. Factor 1: Who one is, means that you prefer for advice in fashion, not only the young and unmarried girl, but also the good looking one. But you will not only focus on the good look, you will also take the girl who goes, for example, to a fashion school – so you can be certain that she actually knows a lot about fashion. That describe factor 2: what one knows. And Factor three is about “whom one knows”. So you will not only choose the young, unmarried, good looking girl that goes to the fashion school, but also the girl who knows fashioner and respected people within the fashion branch personally. That is important for bringing new inputs to the group and relates the group to the world outside.

 

You can see there are a lot of factors involved but if we think about it, I am certain that in one, two or a couple of things everyone from us is an opinion leader and I am also certain that everyone from us have a couple of people to ask for advice for a certain matter.

0 Kommentare

Hinterlasse einen Kommentar

An der Diskussion beteiligen?
Hinterlasse uns deinen Kommentar!

Schreibe einen Kommentar

Deine E-Mail-Adresse wird nicht veröffentlicht. Erforderliche Felder sind mit * markiert.

Diese Website verwendet Akismet, um Spam zu reduzieren. Erfahre mehr darüber, wie deine Kommentardaten verarbeitet werden.